Chemical Composition of Crude Oil and Shale Oil, Table 2. Moreover, it can be used as raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, pesticides, solvents, etc. The world is at a risk since the oil consumption rate is very much higher that its regeneration rate. However, the typical oil has a high proportion of volatile compounds and low sulfur content. The main difference between crude oil and shale oil is that crude oil naturally exists in a liquid state whereas shale oil naturally exists in a solid state.The Figure 1. illustrates the classification of the earth’s organic sediments according to its physical state, hydrocarbon occurrence, and production. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. CRC press: 2014. Spot prices for WTI crude had fallen to $30.23—a price level not seen in years. Coming from Engineering cum Human Resource Development background, has over 10 years experience in content developmet and management. Crude Oil: Crude oil products can be categorized as follows. U.S. shale oil stocks are going to be walloped due to the crude oil price war that kicked off between Russia and Saudi. The key difference between shale oil and crude oil  is in its composition; Shale oil contains relatively large quantities of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen than that of crude oil. There will be an impact to the local population base that is focus on oil shale. 2008. The extraction process is usually performed above the ground. The breakeven price for the U.S. shale industry lies in the $48 to $54 per barrel range. Fractions of typical distillation of crude oil. This Shale oil, also called as “tight oil,” can be used directly or after refining just like petroleum crude oil. Before the shale boom, most refiners in the U.S. were configuring their refineries to process heavy crude oil from Canada's oil … Crude oil is an example of petroleum, which consists of mixtures of hydrocarbons and variable amounts of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen containing compounds. Messel oil shale sideritic laminae By Gretarsson (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons, 2. In contrast to crude oil, Shale oil is a non-petroleum fuel, which naturally exist in a solid state as an oil shale rock or kerogen. The production of shale oil is a great achievement for the global oil crisis. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. Shale Oil: Shale oil mainly contains kerogen (more than 95%) and small amount of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. Of these, crude oil is well-known as the main energy source for several decades but, shale oil is considered as an emerging energy source that can be used as an alternative solution for high crude oil demand in the market. Additional thermal cracking require producing low boiling point gasoline. The tar-like crude must then be processed before it’s suitable for refining, another energy-intensive process. Crude oil– the traditional “black gold”, in liquid form, that can bubble straight up from the ground – is primarily the type of oil sourced from the Middle East. Since the mid-1800s, the world has consumed more than a trillion barrels of crude oil. Crude oil is composed of a mixture of hydrocarbons that have formed from deceased animals and fossils, expo… Home » Science » Chemistry » Difference Between Crude Oil and Shale Oil. This low-sulfur crude oil is more environment-friendly because it reduces engine corrosion and produces low amounts of SOx during fuel combustion. The presence of low boiling point constituents makes the shale oil extremely explosive and highly flammable. That means … These fuels can be subdivided into two categories as petroleum and non-petroleum energy sources. It takes such a long time to produce crude oil by bacterial transformation of organic matter such as carbohydrates and proteins from plant and animal origin. Crude oil indicates the natural state of fuel as it is found in reservoirs. OPEC vs. Shale: the Battle for Oil Price Supremacy Oil prices are in a tug of war between the huge increase in U.S. shale production and the cartel’s attempts to slash its own output Output from American shale oil fields has pushed U.S. crude production to all-time highs. If sulfur content is higher than 0.5% (w/w), they are called sour crude, and if it’s less than 0.5% (w/w), they are called sweet crude. Speight, J., Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process, and performance. Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock formation that is used to produce oil and gas. Shale oil is mainly used as heating oil, marine fuel or chemical for railroad wood preservative, etc. vary with pressure, volume and temperature of the origin of the crude petroleum. Transportation fuels produced by shale oil is of low quality compared to higher grade conventional fuels. However, high boiling point compounds in shale oil can be used to produce middle distillates such as kerosene, diesel, jet fuel, etc. This organic sediment should be thermally decomposed to obtain liquid shale oil. This is done by adding hydrogen and removing other impurities such as nitrogen and sulfur. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists as a liquid in underground geologic formations and remains a liquid when brought to the surface. i.e. Shale oil has not to exposed to sufficient pressure and temperature to convert trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil. Fractional distillation of crude oil produces many transportation fuels such as gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, kerosene, etc. Petroleum ether (C5, C6), straight rum gasoline, Table 1. Oil sands production, however, is more like a factory. This is less fluid than crude oil, and it’s pourable at temperatures between 24 to 27 oC. Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy sources which are formed by sedimentation of plant and animals that died hundreds of millions of years ago. There will be increased truck traffic, more rigs traveling to sites, and even more methane in the local atmosphere as the tight oil … The organic materials (kerogen) in sediments cannot be converted to shale oil without supplying high-temperature treatments such as pyrolysis, hydrogenation or thermal dissolution. Most of the transportation fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuels are fractional distillates of crude oil. Since 2014, U.S. shale oil has created a boom in domestic crude oil production. @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } Shale Oil: The shale oil extraction is an unconventional oil production process. The chemical composition and physical properties of crude oil such as color, odor, volatility, specific gravity, viscosity, etc. It is generally less economical than conventional crude oil. It has high fluidity, and it’s pourable at a high-temperature range. Unlike crude oil, this is not frequently used as a raw material for chemical products. The product obtained from these processes can be readily used as fuel or can be refined to remove impurities and to enhance its qualities. Shale oil has not to exposed to sufficient pressure and temperature to convert trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil. Of these, crude oil is well-known as the main energy source for several decades but, shale oil is considered as an emerging energy source that can be used as an alternative solution for high crude oil demand in the market. Since 2005, the "total oil supply" for the United States as reported by the Energy Information Administration increased by 2.2 million barrels per day. WTI, shale, and infrastructure bottlenecks. The oil in shale is typically found in smaller batches. This temperature and pressure vary with the depth of the reservoir. How much more attractive will developing the Green River oil shale be when a barrel of crude oil costs $200? U.S. shale oil has seen a slowdown in production growth since late 2018. "Sweet crude" is a term that refers to crude oil that has less than 1% sulfur. Shale oil, in fossil fuel production, either a synthetic crude oil that is extracted from oil shale by means of pyrolysis or a naturally occurring crude oil that is extracted from underground shale deposits by means of fracking (hydraulic fracturing). These processes produce an unconventional oil which can be readily used as a fuel or can also be improved to achieve feedstock specifications by doing additional purification methods. Chemical composition of typical crude oil and shale oil by weight. Shale oil and crude oil are two types of energy sources. On the other end of the index is Norway’s Ekofisk oil, a much lighter type of crude. Deposits of … Therefore, it is called Synthetic crude oil. 1. John Wiley & Sons: 2015. Therefore, shale oil is also called as a synthetic crude oil. The organic matter in the rock (kerogen) is converted into synthetic oil and gas during these processes. And the truth is that nearly all of this was supplied through conventional drilling. Of this, 1.3 mb/d, or 60%, has come from natural gas liquids and biofuels, which really shouldn't be added to conventional crude production for purposes of calculating the available supply. 1. Crude oil occurs in underground at elevated pressure and temperature. Because, it is a relatively low cost unconventional resource, it can be spread all over the world to address the global energy problem. Speight, J. G., Handbook of petroleum product analysis. It is true that net crude oil imports have fallen by nearly 60% since President Obama took office. Difference Between Crude Oil and Shale Oil Occurrence. The commercially important oil shale reservoirs are located in Wyoming, Utah and Colorado states of northwestern United States. The production of oil by heat treatments yield a significant amount of volatile gasses such as propane, butane and low boiling point liquids such as pentane, natural gasoline, naphtha, etc. The following Table shows the fraction of typical distillation of crude oil. Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock formation that is used to produce oil and gas. As technology advanced, so, too, did the means for discovering and recovering oil. Crude oil occurs in underground at elevated pressure and temperature. Extracting shale oil from oil shale is more potentially costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. Shale oil is an unconventional fuel that naturally occurs as a solid in a special class of bituminous rocks called oil shale. Although some of the largest oil companies are still trying to make the numbers work, the reality here is that the production process requires too much time, money, and water right now. That may contribute to a rise in crude prices as oil producers adjust production levels. “Crude Oil Distillation-fr.svg” Image originale: Psarianos, Theresa knott; image vectorielle: Rogilbert derivative work: (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia, “Oil Shale” By Georgialh – Own work, (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia, Difference Between Crude Oil and Shale Oil, Difference Between Primary and Secondary Cells. John Wiley & Sons: 2003. It is an irreversible process which involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase), hydrogenation (a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst) or thermal dissolution (a chemical decomposition caused by heat).   Shale oil and crude oil are two types of energy sources. US shale was expected to grow by 650,000 barrels a day this year before the coronavirus outbreak wiped out forecasts for global oil demand, triggering one of the steepest oil … Furthermore, crude oil is divided into two types based on their sulfur content. Shale oil  is a synthetic crude oil, which forms by thermal decomposition of solid kerogen in oil shale rocks. High oxygen content in the shale oil leads to free radical formation and facilitate the fuel combustion. Conventional Crude oil naturally occurs in reservoirs in the liquid state. This has a low economic value compared to refined oil. The key difference between shale oil and crude oil is in its composition; Shale oil contains relatively large quantities of … The kerogen deposits on shale oil rocks gently convert into crude oil by … Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales). Oil Shale vs. Shale Oil: What Investors Need to Know In a confusion of terms, oil shale and shale oil take on a whole new meaning for investors, with billions of barrels of oil at stake. Shale oil wells enjoy very high production in the first 12 to 18 months, then decline rapidly thereafter. According to the statistical evaluations, typical shale oil contains more nitrogenous compounds, more oxygenated compounds, and low sulfur content compared to conventional crude oil. This temperature and pressure vary with the depth of the reservoir. The Cons of Oil Shale. ... shale oil production growth was already projected to slow sharply due to lower oil … Olah, G. A.; Molnar, A., Hydrocarbon chemistry. Oil contains sulfur, and the percentage of sulfur in crude oil dictates the amount of processing needed to refine the oil into energy products. That means shale producers must always be spending a great deal of money to drill new wells to replace the lost production. So it should be refined to meet the required specifications of its end use applications. -60 to 30 oC. Oil well By Flcelloguy at the English language Wikipedia, [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons, Filed Under: Chemistry Tagged With: Compare Shale oil and Crude oil, crude oil, Crude oil Composition, Crude oil Extraction process, light tight oil, Shale oil, Shale oil Composition, Shale oil Extraction process, Shale oil vs Crude oil. Difference Between Hexane and Cyclohexane, Difference Between Ductility and Malleability, What is the Difference Between Aioli and Mayonnaise, What is the Difference Between Massage Oil and Body Oil, What is the Difference Between Chia and Basil Seeds, What is the Difference Between Soy and Paraffin Wax, What is the Difference Between Red and White Miso, What is the Difference Between Bamboo and Cotton Sheets. Their mineral composition varies with its origin, and generally, it contains clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and carbonates, etc. After the extraction, it is refined to convert crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. The primary distinction between crude or conventional oil and shale oil is the way it collects. The dirtiest oil in the index, Suncor Energy’s Synthetic H blend, requires extensive amounts of energy to extract out of the Canadian oil sands. As a result, the United States became the world’s largest crude-oil producer, according to the Energy Information Administration. Hydraulic Fracturing: Do or Die for U.S. Oil. It is generally less economical than conventional crude oil. What the shale boom effectively accomplished was to mask the continued decline in conventional oil production. The shale oil is also known as “light tight oil” and is produced from oil shale rock fragments by the process of pyrolysis (Thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogens). The resulting product can be used for the same applications as derived from crude oil. All rights reserved. It involves the conversion of kerogen in oil shale into shale oil by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution. Extraction Process of Shale Oil and Crude Oil: Difference Between Gasoline and Kerosene and Diesel, Difference Between Crude Oil and Petroleum, Difference Between Coronavirus and Cold Symptoms, Difference Between Coronavirus and Influenza, Difference Between Coronavirus and Covid 19, Difference Between Aerobic Respiration and Anaerobic Respiration, Difference Between Central and Eastern Time, Difference Between 5 HTP Tryptophan and L-Tryptophan, Difference Between N Glycosylation and O Glycosylation, Difference Between Epoxy and Fiberglass Resin. There’s no such thing as a free lunch in the oil industry. Oil that is produced from the refining of oil shale is typically referred to as synthetic crude oil, but the process is more closely allied with traditional crude oil refining than syn-fuel processes such as … The industry is heavily indebted, and companies will not be able to service the debt with the lower oil … As a result, shale oil often needs to be fractured so that the oil trapped within the shale can be recovered. Speight, J. G., The chemistry and technology of petroleum. Crude oil is a hydrocarbon mixture having very simple to more complex molecular structures with long chains and higher molecular weights.   Shale oil comprises more than a third of the onshore production of crude oil in the lower 48 states. Crude oil is the world’s largest energy provider and it is considered as a non-renewable energy source. These oil shales are argillaceous, laminated sediments, generally with high organic content that can be thermally decomposed to produce oil which is known as shale oil. They are naturally present in liquid form and can be obtained by natural gas by condensation or extraction. Crude oil is a dark colored, highly viscous, complex mixture of hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds that can be separated into fractions by distillation. Saudi Arabia slashed its crude oil prices and promised to ramp up oil output. Modern methods allow for holes 9,000 feet deep and … Before we can discern the intricacies of global geopolitics concerning oil, it is important to understand the difference between the two major varieties of this valuable resource. After mining the oil shale, it is treated providing other processing facilities. Petroleum is the most abundantly used source of energy, and it generally exists in the liquid state. About 30% of US shale operators are technically insolvent at $35-a-barrel oil prices, according to a study released Monday by Deloitte. But, the cost of production of shale oil is comparatively low. 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